The built environment is of vital importance to the creation of a sustainable society and construction needs to be considered as being for the public benefit. Decarbonising the UK building stock will not be easy or cheap and it requires concerted effort and co-operation across the supply chain. The capitalist free market is no longer an appropriate mechanism for the construction industry if we are to deliver the new paradigm.
Despite numerous spectacular failings in the delivery of IT and defence projects, our political leaders persist in their faith in the free market. Thus least first cost tendering is now applied across all aspects of public procurement for construction, from initial design right through to the regulatory functions. Where the Government leads the private sector will surely follow.
Open competition certainly does drive down prices but it is equally clear that it does not deliver real value or quality.
Any student of economics can tell you that people respond to incentives and that competition creates perverse incentives. Consider the case of the exam board official caught out last year feeding prior knowledge of exam questions to teachers at a training event. When schools are judged by exam results and exam boards compete to attract schools to use their examinations, they will do whatever is necessary to capture business. The market has created an incentive for perverse behaviours by exam boards including dumbing down the questions and advising teachers which areas to focus on during revision.
Nowadays even Local Authority Building Control has been forced into competition with approved inspectors. There is no longer any protection for the regulatory function. Developers will select their inspection services based not only on fees, but also on who is likely to give them the easiest route to compliance. So, just as with the competing exam boards, there is an incentive for building inspectors to be lenient in order to encourage future business. Any inspector who rigorously applies the regulations is likely to be quickly out of work. How can we therefore expect the statutory regulation function to be rigorously and impartially executed?
So, if our system of statutory oversight is compromised, can we rely on the supply chain to deliver the quality and performance improvements we need? I don’t think we can, as I said in a previous article ‘The Root of the Performance Gap’.
When I started as a young engineer, the practice I worked for had a policy of disregarding the lowest tender when we were evaluating mechanical and electrical subcontracts. You could almost guarantee that the lowest bidder had cut his cloth too thin and that performance on site would suffer, leading to poor quality and a continuous battle over proper completion of the works.
These days however, I find that clients not only appoint the lowest tenderer for every service, but that they also try to negotiate the price even lower. Yet it is clear that lowest cost tendering incentivises suppliers to deliver the lowest level of service that they can get away with. I contend that this actually leads to increased overall cost due to the additional management and supervision required to ensure that the bare minimum requirement of the specification is fulfilled.
However, given the urgent need to decarbonise the UK building stock, simply achieving the bare minimum of the specification is not enough. Every party in the construction process needs to deliver over and above. We need an industry in which every individual actively contributes to achieving a long-term vision rather than being focussed on short term financial goals. We need an industry in which selection is on the basis of performance and lifecycle value.
I suspect however that the public sector is still wedded to competitive tendering and we won’t see the necessary leadership for some time to come. In the interim, a step change in construction performance and value could be achieved by simply changing tender rules. There are lots of clever ways to structure competitions to achieve best value rather than lowest cost. However, a simple first step would be for the public sector to commit to taking the second lowest bid in any tender. At a stroke this would remove the incentive to bid at unrealistically low levels. The construction industry would then be able to concentrate on delivering value rather than recouping its losses.